History of Pinkerton Detectives Essay Allan Pinkerton was born in Glasgow, Scotland, on August 25, 1819. He was born into poverty to a police man who could no longer work due to injuries he had sustained from the job. To support his family Allan worked as a cooper or barrel maker in his native land. Allan ran afoul of local authorities over the membership in a chartist movement. This was a political movement that was dedicated to universal suffrage and better working conditions for the poor. A price was laid on his head and Allan and his young bride Joan fled for their lives. This landed them in the United States and settled near Chicago in 1842. He was a very hard working man who had realized working for himself would be the best thing for him and his family. After some time he move to Dundee a town he realized it was in need of cooper. There he quickly gained control of the market due to his good quality of barrels and low prices. The desire he had to expand his business is what led him to the path of being a detective. Allan Pinkerton realized that good quality raw materials for his barrel were easily obtained on Small Island close to town. Through a business mind he decided instead of paying others to provide him with the materials he should instead travel to the place to get the materials. Pinkerton was an abolitionist and soon his shop acted as a station for escaping slaves to freedom to the north through the Underground Railroad (John, 2005). When Pinkerton got to the island, there were signs of habitation. Having in mind that there were some counterfeiters in the area, he concluded that could be their hiding place. He teamed up with the local sheriff to venture out the camp and this led to the arrest of the band. His superiority began in detective and the local townspeople turned to him to help them in arresting the ringleader of the band. The natural abilities in Allan Pinkerton eventually allowed him to track and bring down the counterfeiters to justice. One day while Pinkerton was gathering wood he discovered a gang that was making coins in the area. Allan assisted in arresting these men. This discovery and arrest of the counterfeiters led to his appointment as a country sheriff in 1846. In 1850 Allan was appointed as the first city detective in Chicago police force and in the same year he established a private detective agency. In 1850 by Pinkerton Allan along with Chicago attorney general Edward Rucker founded the north western police agency. In 1843, Allanâ€™s brother Robert had formed his own business called Pinkerton company which was originally established as railroad contractors, but along the line he began to work as a railroad detective. This business was growing very rapidly that he hired several men as detectives and guards. When Allan and Ruckerâ€™s business dissolved a year after its formation; Allan joined his brother in the already established company and the name changed to Pinkerton National Detective Agency (John, 2005). The Pinkerton detective agency It is believed to be founded by Allan Pinkerton in the 1850s. He selected a logo of an open eye with the tagline â€œwe never sleepâ€. This is what led the Pinkerton men and later to private eyes. Pinkerton provided a wide range of private detective services and specialized in the capture of train robbers and counterfeiters. Their clients included banks, railroads, and government and they provided stable business for the firm. They were hired by railroad companies to investigate crimes against them and the activities of labor movements. Pinkerton was a solution to the growing labor unrest. Many businesses wanted muscular enforcers available at the factories and mines to watch their employees closely (Geringer, 2008). In 1861, when he was investigating a railway case he discovered an assassination plot against Abraham Lincoln. The conspirators were intended to kill Lincoln during a stop at Baltimore on the way to his inauguration. Pinkerton warned Lincoln of the threat and he passed through that city at night secretly. Lincoln soon hired Pinkerton to organize a secret service to gather military information during the civil war in the southern states. During this time he hired escaped slaves as spies to the confederates. During the time of the civil war Pinkerton headed a group that was aiding the government with information about their rivals. He also at times acted as Lincolnâ€™s body guard. During the years between 1867 and 1875 he was the head of American secret service during the civil war and he led to the pursuit for frank and Jessie James American outlaws in the state of Missouri (John, 2005). After the civil war Pinkerton went back to the management of his detective agency. When Robert Pinkerton died in 1868 Allan Pinkerton took over the whole management of the detective agency. However a year later he suffered a paralyzing stroke which nearly killed him. He recovered later and went on with the management of the Pinkerton detective agency. Between the year 1873 and 1876, one of his agents managed to obtain the secured evidences that had led to the breaking up of the coal minersâ€™ organization in Pennsylvania who were thought to engage in terrorism. This led to the execution of twenty people members by the court. In 1877 they went on strikes that led to much criticism of the Pinkerton detective agency harsh policies towards the labor unions. The criticism was done in circles though Pinkerton was assertive that he was helping workers by opposing the labor unions. Allan Pinkerton died in 1884, and the agency was taken over by his sons William and Robert who continued the agencyâ€™s movement from detective work to security and protection. Improved police departments and other private agencies at this time had begun to impinge on Pinkertonâ€™s business. Allanâ€™s sons continued with the companyâ€™s expansion, investigations of mafia activities, unions, robberies and insurance claims. They also provided protection to various public events. During the labor unrests he hired guards to keep strikers and their unionists away from the factories. Most noted was the 1892 homestead strike where the Pinkerton agents ended up killing several people. The Pinkerton Detective agency often supplied men to break strikes. During this year 1892, the amalgamated iron and steel workers union invited its members at a homestead plant owned by Andrew and Henry. The strikers were waiting for them and they had a battle all the day long which resulted to the death of seven Pinkertonâ€™s agents and nine workers. This gave the agency a bad publicity (Gale, 2000). Allan Pinkerton II gained control of the company in 1923. He continued with the expansion of the business due to increasing bank robberies which was facilitated by automobile. In 1930 he also died and Robert Pinkerton II took control of the agency. In 1937 when the Wagner Act by the congress was passed it made the investigation of the labor activities illegal. To make up for this loss of the business the Pinkerton Agency focused more on investigation of gambling, especially the horse racing circuit. The 1940s through to 1960s was a time for change for the Pinkerton National detective agency. Their primary service changed to guarding of property. This can be linked partly to the services they offered during the World War II; guarding the war supply plants. In 1965 it was renamed Pinkertonâ€™s incorporated to reflect this shift away from investigation services. In 1967 Edward J. Bednarz became the first non- family member to be a president of the agency. In 1983 Americans Brands purchased the Pinkerton for $162 million. The chairman who took over Robert McGuire had the objective to improve the agency service and increases revenue. His efforts resulted to $11 million loss in sales by 1987. This loss could be partly blamed on the competition by other over 1000 security agencies that had sprung up over the years (Gale, 2000). Thomas Wathen purchased the company from the American Brands in 1988 for $95 million. His goal was to revitalize this firm having revitalized the California Plant Protection to gain its former position of a multi purpose investigation firm. He actively sought the companyâ€™s growth through acquisitions. After duration of two years, Pinkertonâ€™s inc. had combined revenue of $605 million. Wathen also expanded the agency reach to other countries including Mexico, Canada and Portugal. In 1991, Pinkerton acquired Business Risk International, a respected investigation, a respected investigation, consulting and business agency. This move brought Pinkerton back into business as a full service security provider. The firm continued to expand throughout the late 1990s, and solidified its position as the worldâ€™s biggest security solutions firm (Gale, 2000). In conclusion the Pinkerton detective agency may not have been founded to run this far but the ambitions of the people who ran the company contributed to this sustainability of the company. The good work offered by the company was also needed by many and the target groups who received the services were also well chosen. The natural abilities of Pinkerton were also a great and important aspect of his mission. The choosy way of recruiting the agents contributed a great deal to the success of the company. All these reasons combined with the excellent services they offered made them more successful. Pinkerton was a great man in searching for up coming opportunity which helped him in expanding his businesses and also gain superiority. References Gale Group, (2000): Pinkerton National Detective Agency. Retrieved on 16th Jan, 2009 from: http://www. accessmylibrary. com/coms2/summary_0193-13350_ITM Geringer J. , (2008): Allan Pinkerton and His Detective Agency: We Never Sleep. Retrieved on 16th Jan, 2009 from: http://www. trutv. com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/cops_others/pinkerton/1. html John L. Hoh, Jr. (2005): Allan Pinkerton and his Secret Role in the Underground Railroad. Retrieved on 16th Jan, 2009 from: http://www. suite101. com/article. cfm/the_underground_railroad/114256
Crossing the West and Unite Essay
Is Pan- Africanism merely an ideology of beliefs that belongs to a past?Â Historically it can be traced that Africans in their country of origin have a great civilization but why in the world would this great people need to walk a crusade like one of its forerunnerâ€™s Du Bois when he said that: â€œThe Last Battle of the Westâ€ in liberation of the Africans.Â This was reechoed to the world when racial ideologies become severe in the West, in Latin America, and under the British Colony.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â In the paper written by Araia it was mentioned in detail how Pan-africanism followed throughout history how the Africans were discriminated from repatriation towards the movement of the Diaspora.Â Some of them are also the black slaves who are treated well and given freedom by some of their masters.Â This loyalty taught the Diaspora to adapt the ways their masters taught them.
The Africans and Diaspora experienced the same discrimination and both have adjusted to their present environs.Â Â It was also proven that one color is not a proof of unity since man seeks to have different clichÃ©s or the need to belong to a certain group.Â In some cases, adoption to a certain laws and culture makes a person get antagonized by two identities especially if the one being introduced is exactly opposed to his or her tradition.Â And with that, instead of unification a person has the guilt of having adulterated ones culture or we may say to experience a culture shock.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â That shock divides, and Pan-African organizations have travelled a long way to reunite its brood. An issue that goes with identity crises is repatriation which has bad and good consequences like founding its way for a new black republic in the western hemisphere.Â That beginnings fostered confidence to the Diaspora and to the Africans in the continent.Â These are somehow, providential that the Africans scatter the world like someone says that from evil there is an abundance of good.Â In this scenario, we can conclude that those early Africans who crossed the continent have struggled, though some may loose their birth right marks, many have hold on to his true identity.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â In one of the conferences, Africanâ€™s echoed the need to be respected like all other humans as Malcolm X stated that â€œâ€¦, so that Africa too becomes respected as other huge continents are respected, then, wherever people of African origin, African heritage or African blood go, they will be respected â€“ but only when and because they have something much larger that looks like them behind them (GAraia).â€Â His words explained the impact of Pan-Africanism ideology towards the African experience and the Black Diaspora. To him, the proof of a good race is the good examples that will be left behind by that color and creed.
Â Malcolm X words mean to say, the need for the Africans to show to the world that the race came from a good and descent stock while explaining that respect begets respect.Â But first and foremost respect for oneself should come first.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The elevation of the human nature is based on its dignity, and for this reason it is necessary to look back to where this race belongs.Â It is important to see how the older ones have struggled and how did they fought squarely the battle of searching for oneâ€™s identity.Â Thus when it is found, is it an experience of neither dismay nor courage.Â The integral part of this soul searching is whether it is accepted or not but the most important thing is to gain confidence and repair whatever damage is done.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The reformist Du Boisian pan-Africanism had more influence and ideological impact on Africans in the Continent during the early part of reunification but on the later part the transatlantic Pan-Africanism focused on nationalist ideologies thru Nkrumah.Â Â Â Â Â However, the vision of Garvey became relevant until today because it has promoted unity and well-being among Africans, re-examination of public policy against racism and other forms of discrimination which has resulted to security and equality, and provision of sovereignty and respect towards individual culture.Â Identity crisis was changed into acceptance in spite that points of view can not always be the same.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The Brazzaville and Casablanca could have been fueled by the so called identity crisis too which could have gotten down to the marrow of the new generations of the Africans in the middle of the 19th Century. The former against the bearing of a socialist mentality and the other gets intimidated of begging or having dependence on the Western aid.Â Those are two opposing ideological differences that have affected the political and economic perspectives of that time.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â However, in the course of time different Africans groups learned to focus on their similarities to bridge the gap that has existed due to various groupings.Â This meeting of the minds ended in the formation of the African Unity which led by Nkrumah created the UNIA under the influence of the philosophy of Marcus Garvey to the Negritude of Cesaire and Senghor.Â This movement led to the search of the African identity till it is known today as African Union (AU) which was previously called Organization of African Unity (OAU).
Â Today, we may say that the Pan-Africanism movement has matured and was able to handle whatever difficulties they would get entangled within their individual principles and personal circumstances.Â Through viable global communications brought by new technology, a connection was built between Africa and its Diasporas which forge Pan-African unity transcending all unproductive dichotomies.
Todayâ€™s relevance of the Pan-African
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Pan-Africanism will remain the instrument of fostering unity and empowerment as long as there is marginalized Africans and Diaspora that has been continually growing in numbers.Â It will be the voice to call and unite, and to remind wherever this colored men are, telling each one is his brotherâ€™s keeper.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â With the growing world spearheading towards globalization, there is a great need for Pan-Africanism to be a state led project in the emancipation of its great role in the 21st Century. There will be new challenges facing the Africa and the Diaspora despite of its historical achievements of decolonization and civil rights.Â The ideology of collective empowerment can provide a great leap for Pan-African states and societies who are merely pawns in the world arena.Â According to Nkrumah there is a need to pull all resources like the socio-cultural, eco-political aspects and demographic capitals to attain the Pan-African vision of the socio-economic development of all its civil societies namely the Africans and the Diasporas.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â It is very striking to know that African migrants (Diaspora) today are very much educated as compared to people of its countryâ€™s origin.Â Making the brain drain problem severe in Africa but these international migrants who are skilled are assets for the developing countries in terms of remittances and brain mobility.Â Those who migrated towards the north are very much educated however they only comprise of the minority.Â Majority migrated to other African countries.Â In other words, the Diaspora represents a growing mighty force for the development of Pan-Africanism today.Â The African Diasporas because of their dual identities acquired from their host countries became more flexible and at the same time equipped with enormous social capital that could defend the future of Africa.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â However, the government only views the Diasporas as an economic resource or by way a dollar remittance arm.Â They do not only exceed foreign investments cash capital but with their civic and cultural awareness could access global markets, create a more vigorous democracy that could strengthen a society that encourages growth of new philanthropic cultures.Â Diasporas are regarded as people with multiple identities but with commitments firmly rooted to their country of origin.Â
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The new generation of the African Diasporas will surely bridged the gap of the Atlantic and Africa and the African American created by prejudices and the racist media.Â One can perceived today the growing awareness in the Pan-American consciousness for instance the assertiveness of the blacks in Brazil, the affirmation of Afrocentric culture in the US, and Afropolitan identities of the diasporas in European Countries.Â They are collective struggles that show the world that these African migrants are reconstructing their identities by renegotiating their place in wherever host societies they belong which is in congruent that they will attain full democratic citizenship and status, a dream that has been long awaited by their peers and fore parents.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â In the long run, this presence of the Diaspora will be felt by the whole world and in order to facilitate their presence, African policy makers and Pan-Africanism should take the Diaspora options seriously.Â This requires networks that facilitate brain mobility, formation of diverse knowledge, and the defense to Africa which have been defamed in Euro-America.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â AU with its 20 councils, promoted social and cultural contexts towards its civic organizations in order to unify and integrate Africa, an enduring dream for Pan-Africanism derived from the rising of the Diasporaâ€™s homogenization from oneâ€™s host country.Â The AU is more robust organization, and is more people friendly.Â The OAU was preoccupied with politics, sovereignty and eliteâ€™s camaraderie. However, both are achievers in the vision of Pan-Africanism.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â In its present trend, AU launched the â€œAfrican Union-African Diaspora Summit at all levels of the State and Governments, with a theme â€œTowards the realization of a united and integrated Africa and its Diasporaâ€ in short, after crossing the West â€“ the African will be united.Â This unity hopefully will lead to a full cooperation and better understanding of every member of the Pan-African nations including the cooperation of the Diaspora host countries worldwide.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The self acceptance of the Diaspora rejuvenated Pan-Africanism with its contemporary dictum of being able to combine the old and new.Â Their demands are no longer driven by political independence but learning the complex ties that separate and unites them to their origin.Â With this knowledge, unity will not be an elusive dream to the Pan-Africanism but a way of life transcending global marginalism that has been caused by inequality of power and privileges.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The passing of time may have healed the wounds in the past; the present generations are no longer alienated to the prejudices, but men and women who are proud of their colors and traditional beliefs.Â These Africans are more capable of confronting the problems of today than merely following the course of history.Â These are men who see the world, fair and square but able to form kinship and friendship even with those who had inflicted wounds on them.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Pan-Africanism is not just an ideology itâ€™s praxis, a chain that links all Africans of the world.Â It has guided the race through out history and will always be a gleaming light for those who find that multiple identities seem quite confusing.Â It will be a bosom for all Africans to convene, and to learn that adopting other technologies and means is not to be come inferior but teaching this race the value of genuine patriotism.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The so called ideology came from a long journey, it infiltrated the West and the Atlantic continent, and it has surrounded the world as bent on becoming a one and united dynamic race.Â They will be people who will not be saddened by their past mistakes but more of a people who have stand and struggled to gain respect.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â These are people with human culture that is unique and these beliefs are needed to be upheld and preserved. The Pan-African vision will guide these beliefs through time which must be guided by wisdom.Â Loving ones country does not hate the other; nationalism is not wrong as long as we do not hate or inflict wrong another nation.Â Better still, we must love our own country but also loving the rest of the world and thatâ€™s what you call patriotism.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â For those who are lucky to cross the West, and the other Diaspora, and those who belong to each others continent it is time to unite.Â After all, man belongs to one single stock â€“ the human being with a body and soul.Â Diasporas from all parts of the globe or Africans alike wherever continent they belong, they are just one brother and sister who belongs to one and the same human race.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â To all Africans and Diaspora the ideology of Pan-Africanism will always be behind, until the time that this race received the respect its forerunners has long waited for.Â Â It will always be the shadow that will unite every Africans and the Diaspora who has been nurtured and taught by its adoptive nation.Â In turn, both will be teaching the other their ways combining new and old and giving good examples that the rest of the world will learn to admire and accept.
Ghelawdewos Araia. â€œThe Historical and Ideological Foundations of Pan-Africanism.â€Â 2006.
12/5/2019 0 Comments
Introduction to Sociology of Religion - Essay Example
Department of State par. 4). Therefore, oneâ€™s personal immersion to religion, as a subject in class, was actually during the course entitled Religions of the World which had been very illuminating. I realized from then on that the subject appropriately prepared me for life beyond the traditional classroom setting and also in various settings including the work place. The course is definitely a dynamic and evolving source of sociological learning due to its interactive nature to diverse societies worldwide. Knowledge of different religious beliefs, teachings, practices and how these are applied in current scenarios made one recognize the diversity and richness of religion as it encompasses social structures. The experience made one compare other courses, such as engineering courses, where theories and concept prepared students for applications to work behind computers or research laboratories, as well as in high technology settings.
Since the first religion course, the next successive courses on religion have been enriching in terms of learning so much about diversity in people from various cultural orientations. Despite being in the field of technology, one acknowledges that through increasing emphasis on globalization, one has significantly become most respectful towards other peopleâ€™s religions and diversity in culture and social perceptions towards beliefs, preferences, value systems, and family life.
Oneâ€™s expectations from the course on sociology of religion include highlighting religion as a belief system and also as a social expression of faith. It could therefore include looking back at the theories and concepts learned from the past religion courses; but at the same time, the course could be more advance in terms of thinking how these religious theories are linked to sociological theories in both the domestic setting and on a more global scale. As one learned from Religions of the World, most of the practices become
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